Gemstones Guide | Definition, History, Facts, Types & Features

Gemstones Guide, Definition, History, Facts, Types & Features

Gemstones – An Overview

If you desire to learn the history of gemstones, this Blog will describe all the key features you need to understand. Rubies, valuable diamonds, enormous emeralds and other gemstones have long inspired tales, fables, and even obscenities. They have been desired by royalty, rich receivers and movie stars alike.

Gemstones are rocks, minerals, or organic things that have been picked for their beauty, endurance, and curiosity and then cut or faceted and polished to invent jewelry or ornamentations. Even though the greatest gemstones are hard, some are too smooth or delicate to be utilized in jewelry, so they are frequently shown in museums and solicited by receivers.

Gemstones are valuable materials in today’s marketplace. They have been inquired after for thousands of years for their elegance, mystical properties, and commercial uses. In earlier times there were no such things as artificial gemstones, but today they are quite obvious.

Gemstones are distinct in their beauty and many gems is possible in a stunning quality of colors. Most gemstones have light elegance in rough situations. They may look like normal rocks or stones. After a proficient cutting and polishing of a gem, full -color and radiance can be seen.

In the modern world, you will need to develop a couple of skills to get your hooks on gemstones. The accumulation, mining, and stone cutting skills are all vital for preparing gemstones. The most significant reason to get gemstones is how they modify your weapons and armor once socketed.

There are several levels of gemstones you can cut that lack an eminent level of stonecutting. You will also need scraps which is where the harvest and tapping skill comes into play. You can find these below and all the gemstones and what impacts they take to socketed material.

History of Gemstones

When did people first identify gemstones?

When did people first identify gemstones

Based on prevailing archaeological testimony and written history, here are some important terms we understand about the first employment of gems by several cultures.

Hindy Kush region (now Afghanistan)

Archaeological evidence suggests that the oldest Gemstone mined by man is lapis lazuli, a stone with rich, blue color. It was adopted by people residing in the Hindu Kush region throughout the Neolithic era.


We recognize from archaeological data that previously nearby 4000 BC, the Egyptians were inventing gemstone jewelry utilizing lapis lazuli and amethyst.


Jade is the eldest gemstone discussed in Chinese historical writings approximately 3600 BC.


Indians were the first people to well and accept diamonds nearby 300 BC.

Ancient Greece and Rome

Antiquity defines the Usage of gemstones in Greece and Roman Empire as between 1600 BC and 500 BC. Both cultures used sapphires, garnets and pearls as ornaments.

The Color of Gemstones

The Color of Gemstones

Gemstones seem naturally in all the colors of the spectrum, including colorless, white and black – with all variations of blues, greens, reds, yellows, browns, pinks and oranges within.

Gemstone Shapes

Gemstone Shapes Chart

Gemstones naturally occur as “rough” stones. These are irregular in shape and some cases, not all that sparkly or beautiful. After drilling, yet, they are moulded and finished into particular shapes, named cuts, by specialist lapidaries (gem cutters). This intensifies and draws out their shine and brilliance.

Value of Gemstones

Much the equivalent as you would demand from any other dominant industry, the value of gemstones is mainly determined by supply and request.

One of the most crucial things for people when analyzing gemstones is the value and cost for them, but like in several industries, the rules of supply and demand are very much in position. This means that precious gems will bring a greater price tag.

For situation, a garnet is remarkably stylish and charming, but it is not that rare, which indicates that its price tag is not too expensive. If you equalled a garnet to a ruby of comparable size and situation, the ruby would always take a higher rate, just because it is a limited rock.

It is usually challenging to set a genuine value on any singular gemstone because there is no dress graduation or estimation system in point. This is where gemstones vary from diamonds, which have been subjected to a uniform estimation system since the 1950s. Traditionally, gemstones have been tested and estimated by the eye. When testing a gemstone, the four most crucial factors can be summed up in the four C’s, which are; color, clarity, cut and carat.

Fundamental Characteristics of Gemstones

Gemstones Color

Gemstones are distinct in their beauty, and many are available in a marvellous variety of shades and colors. Most precious stones have a slender beauty in difficult circumstances, they may seem like normal stones or pebbles, but after a proficient cutting and finishing the full-color and lustre can be seen. Usually, gemstones with clear, medium-tone, bright, and soaked primary colors are most favoured. The shade of a gemstone depends on three things: hue, saturation, and tone.

Gemstones Clarity

Gemstones are made under the Earth’s surface and can sometimes display lines of other minerals, described inclusions. Inclusions can seem like little spots or defects within the stone. When observed through a microscope or a 10x loupe, they can provide information regarding the geological conditions in which the mineral was made and its source. Inclusions can sometimes recognize gemstones and even determine whether the stone is natural or synthetic. Some gemstones, such as emeralds, are more prone to have inclusions. Others, such as aquamarine and topaz, usually have very few compositions or even none at all. A gemstone may have formations, cracks, clouds, spots, or any other blemish or defect.

Gemstones Cut

The original beauty of a gem can be improved by the process it is cut. A great cut is essential to providing a gemstone with its elegance and brilliance. There are two basic classifications of gem cuts: cabochon and faceted.

The cabochon cut has a smooth rounded head, usually with a flattened bottom, and it is chiefly used for cloudy or glassy softer gemstones. Cabochons were simply designed in which gems were cut till about the 14th era when faceting was formed.

Faceting is the method of cutting a gemstone to enhance its beauty by making it reveal lighter. The faceted cut has many yet cut surfaces with an overall appearance that might be round, square, oval, and more. Only the denser gemstones can be fortunately faceted. A gemstone that has been cut and polished is described as a gem, or jewel, while a person who forms and polishes gems is named a gem cutter or a lapidary (lapidarist). The property of a gemstone’s cut can have a tense impact on how it views, but only a little impact on the cost per carat.

Gemstones Carat

The weight of the gemstone is weighed in carats (5 carats = 1 gram). It’s essential to understand that some gems are more solid than others. For example, a one-carat ruby is going to be tinier than a one-carat emerald. Also, several types of gems that are related in size may still vary significantly in rate. In the case of gemstones, larger stones are not always more worthwhile. The rarity of a particular size will define the worth of a gemstone. A gem that is possible, generally in weights of 10 carats or more may be light precious than one that is rarely available in big dimensions.

Gemstones Hardness

The hardness of a stone is the only agent in defining gem endurance. It symbolizes the stone’s protection from scratching and abrasions, or how the facade of the gem will react to reach a cutting point. The Mohs scale determines the hardness of gems and minerals on a comparative scale of 1 (softest – Talc) to 10 (hardest – Diamond). Organized in 1822, the scale was introduced when Friedrich Mohs took ten minerals and selected numbers to them based on the relevant ease or challenge with which one can be scraped by another.

Gemstones Formation

Our asteroid, which was formed about 4.5 billion years ago, is composed of several layers: the Earth’s shell, extending from 3 to 25 miles deep, the mantle and the central part of the Earth identified as the core. Most of the gemstones appear as minerals under several conditions in the rocks of the Earth’s crust, while just a few of them form in the covering. The crust is made up of three sorts of rock, identified in geology as igneous, metamorphic and sedimentary rock. All gemstones are mined in the crust. After they are mined, they usually go to a lapidary, which does the ultimate cleaning. This can include scraping the rock model, in which the stone was occupied, then cutting or facetting and finishing the precious stones.

Gemstones Species and Varieties

Many types of stones refer to groups or varieties that share an even crystalline structure and chemical constitution. Some of the most prominent gemstone classes include beryl, corundum, garnet, quartz, and tourmaline. Moreover, each species may have one or more variations, which have unique coloring or highlights. For example, the class corundum adds the classes ruby and sapphire. Nevertheless, not every variety of gems refers to a collection, many are unique varieties that do not share resources with any other type of gem.

Minerals vs. Non-Mineral Gemstones

Although most gemstones are analyzed minerals, some are also non-mineral. Minerals happen naturally in the Earth’s coating and are described as artificial substances that have a specific chemical composition and crystalline formations. Minerals are classified by their unique properties, such as color, crystal form, hardness, definite gravity, luster, fracture, and tenacity. When a mineral is considered as rare and particularly beautiful, we suggest to it as a gemstone (for example diamond, emerald, ruby, and sapphire). All minerals can be gemstones, but not all gemstones can be metals.

Also, rocks are composed of minerals, but minerals are not covered of rocks. A rock is an artificial, solid, and natural substance without any particular atomic structure or chemical constitution. It’s an whole composed of two or more minerals that are all tightly locked together to form a strong solid.

Non-mineral or pure gemstones are obtained from being organisms like animals and plant life, that has developed into wonderful gemstones due to natural methods — for example, pearl, coral, ivory, amber, and jet.

Precious vs. Semi-Precious Gemstones

One of the principal properties of gemstones is whether they are classed as precious or semi-precious. This is a selling term intended to make specific stones seem more limited or significant than others. Gemstones have excellence, durability and rarity, while semiprecious stones have only one or two of these characteristics. Diamonds, rubies, emeralds, and sapphires are all estimated to be valuable, and through, the most worthy and most acceptable. All other gemstones are recognized as semi-precious.

Natural vs. Synthetic Gemstones

Natural gemstones are found in nature, formed buried in the Earth and mined out of it. They are sometimes intensified, which indicates they were employed in some way to enhance their color or accuracy. This frequently includes heat or sensitive chemical methods. Depending on the type and intensity of treatment, they can influence the worth of the stone.

Artificial or Lab-created gemstones, on the other side, are made in laboratories by human laborers and devices. They are chemical, physical, and optically equal to gems observed in nature. Of course, lab-created gemstones don’t have the curiosity of natural gemstones, which is why they are less worthwhile. Now, synthetic variants of approximately all admired gemstones are available. Some current man-made gemstones look more real and are more difficult to identify, but a competent jeweler or gemologist can usually identify them.

List of All Types of Gemstones

Mainly, there are 4 Gemstones (Emerald, Diamond, Ruby, Sapphire) are Precious ones and Most demanded around the world since many times. Let’s have a look at Some Different Gemstones in Detail:

The 4 Precious Gemstones

1. Diamond

Diamond - King of all gemstones

King of all Stones

Of course, the jewels that could not be missing from this list of precious stones are diamonds. The favorite gemstone of queens, actresses and singers are also one of the most expensive and its price can vary greatly depending on its quality. Diamond is the hardest stone on the planet with a level 10 on the Mohs scale and they are very durable.

Without color and in its natural state, it is undoubtedly one of the most beautiful jewels in the world. According to the portal specialized, the price per carat of a perfectly cut diamond is 15,000$ on average.

But let’s go to the central object of desire: the sparkle of diamonds, which has long captured attention; brings us pure mysticism, witness to power and greed; part of the great fortune of the wealthiest kings and the greatest tragedies.

That is why the diamond is a jewel that has become the most coveted precious stone by jewelers, projecting its majesty in engagement rings, bracelets, earrings, cufflinks, necklaces, brooches, among others.

2. Emerald

Gem of Rebirth

Emerald - Gem of Rebirth

Emeralds are immediately recognizable due to their dazzling and intense green color. Darker green indicates a more priceless emerald. Emeralds are more solid than diamonds, so a 1-carat emerald looks bigger than a 1-carat diamond.

High-quality Emeralds are limited, so it is typical for them to be handled with either heat or water to intensify their color, clarity, and endurance. Emeralds are the correct birthstone for May.

3. Ruby

Gem of Passion

Ruby - Gem of Passion

Rubies immediately make you consider a stone with a hot red color that signifies passion and strength. Rubies are the second-hardest gemstone after Diamonds. They are identified as the “gem of precious stones” because they have the leading per-carat cost over any other colored stone.

Some rubies can become large adequate to crystallize into gems that are more worthwhile than diamonds of the same size. Red Ruby Gemstone is the birthstone for July Peoples.

4. Sapphire

Sapphire - Gem of Loyalty

Gem of Loyalty

Sapphires are normally connected with the royal blue kind of this gem, but it is composed of a rainbow of hues. The royal gem can appear in any color besides red because then it would be categorized as a ruby.

Interestingly sufficient, pink sapphires tread a little line between a ruby and a sapphire. As of now, Madagascar leads the world in sapphire production; although these gems can also be observed in many other countries, it’s their source that can influence their content as much as color, cut, clarity, and carat measurement.

Other Semi-Precious Gemstones


Pearl - Gem of Purity

Gem of Purity

Out of all of the gemstones, Pearls are the unique gemstones made inside a living organism. Any clam can compose a pearl, but there are only 2 classes of clams in the world that offer the cream-colored and rainbow-like pearls we value in jewelry production. Pearls are one of the Perfect Birthstones for June.


Gem of Self-Worth and Healing

Garnet gemstone

Garnet is a generic name that obtains together various types of minerals with the exact crystal structure. It belongs to the rhombic or cubic system and is classified within the group of silicates. The basic use of garnet is jewelry. We can find it spread all over the planet.

From ancient times to the present day, garnet is surrounded by legends about magical and healing properties. The gemstone generates strong love, desire, and passion, gives power, destroys the immoral, endows the needy with untold riches, predicts the future, and protects against disease.



Amethyst -Jewel of Stability

Jewel of Stability

Amethyst Crystals are discovered in geodes and come in several shades of purple from light lilac to a deep red/violet mix. The birthstone of February, its purple shades elegantly complement all metal tones and settings.

Amethysts are assumed to signify peace and devotion, making them an ideal stone selection for those who want to give a significant gift to their loved ones.


Aquamarine - Gem of Tranquility

Gem of Tranquility

Aquamarine gemstones match all the potential colors of the ocean – “aquamarine” turns into “water of the sea”. These gemstones view their fittest with white toned metals and can be used as both center stones or accent stones. They correctly offer both elegance and versatility.

Aquamarine is the birthstone of March, and they have a calming effect due to their color. Indeed, since ancient times, aquamarine has been considered a protective amulet for sailors.


Peridot Gemstone

Gem of the Aura Shield

The Peridot gemstone is one of the oldest, being collectors’ items for precious and semi-precious stones. It has different characteristics that give it a good value in the market. For this reason, we invite you to analyze all the details of said mineral.

It is one of the precious and semi-precious stones that manage to open, cleanse and activate the heart. Alike, it is affirmed that it dismisses burdens, eradicates obsessions, reduces guilt and generates general well-being. Other people argue that the gem helps hold evil spirits away.

It is also used to shield the aura, reaching a complete purification of the soul. It has properties that improve self-confidence and faith in oneself. Finally, in theory, it increases the liability of its carriers.


Gem of Comfort

Topaz - Gem of Comfort

Topaz gemstones express friendship and can be many several colors. They are often related to emotional hues like orange, yellow, and brown. The precious Topaz colors are purple, pinkish-red, and orange. Yellow Topaz is the November birthstone, and blue topaz is the December birthstone.



Gem of Triumph

Tourmaline - Gem of Triumph

Not popularly recognized as a feature gemstone, Tourmaline Gemstones can be blue, orange, pink, green, purple, red, brown, black, yellow, or colorless. These colors can be blended with the most obvious being a green and a pink form into a red center matching a watermelon. Tourmaline is the birthstone of October.


Gem of Positive Energy

Citrine - Gem of Positive Energy

Citrine gemstones reach in color from light yellow to brownish orange. The title “Citrine” is from the French term “Citron” meaning “lemon”. Traces of iron in these gems build their distinct shades of color.

Citrine is the most common yellow gemstone and a decent option to a topaz or yellow sapphire. Citrine looks choicest in yellow gold but also examines current and pure in white tone settings.


Opal - Gem of loyalty and Faithfulness

Gem of loyalty and Faithfulness

These opulent stones glow with a glowing rainbow. They have long been linked with desire and emotion, love, and faith. Opal, more than any other gemstone, is an individual. Precious Opal displays a rainbow with hues that change with viewing angle, especially in rounded cabochon shapes.

For centuries, people have thought about the healing ability of Opal. It is said to be able to resolve depression and help its wearer find true and real love. Opal is a birthstone gem for October born Peoples.

In addition to being one of the most appreciated gemstones in the world of jewelry, it is also believed that it enhances creativity and can bring out all the talents of a person, not in vain is it known as “the stone of the artists”. Opal is also thought to enhance self-esteem, spontaneity, love and passion.


A Gem of Sensitivity, Balance, and Relaxation

A Gem of Sensitivity, Balance, and Relaxation

At first look, moonstone may seem pure white, but leave them slightly and bright blue rainbow reflections over the surface. It implies that your love will endure a lifetime while leading you to life’s many variations.



Turquoise Gemstone


A Stone of Luck and Joy

The turquoise stone is one of the most beautiful and shimmering specimens of all the production of nature. Turquoise is known as the stone of luck, a name attributed to the Arabs. In the case of the Turkish culture, they called it the rider’s talisman and it was embedded in gold necklaces. For this reason, it has become an essential stone for travelers who want to attract good luck.

It is a stone associated with love, which in theory enhances relationships. It is said that it merges souls, changing color as love ends or if there is infidelity.

Be that as it may, they are widespread beliefs throughout the planet, but they do not have scientific verification. All of its magical powers have been attributed to cultures over the years.

The rich blue and green colors in a Turquoise Gemstone are colored by the copper to build vibrant and dynamic hues. The gemstone is a combination of microcrystals arranged in a close formation for more endurance than a standard gemstone.


Onyx Gemstone

Onyx another opaque variety of agate formed by striped quartz, appearing in normally dark and black colors, although there is some variety in light and even reddish tones. Currently, we associate onyx with the color black.

Other varieties of onyx that are not black in color are known as sardonyx.

Her name comes from the Greek onyx, which means nail, and is related to the mythical story that explains that when Cupid cut Venus’s nails while she was sleeping, they fell to earth and scattered on her.


Treatments and enhancements

Some gemstones are employed to enhance their presence or durability or to develop their color. Some improvements influence the rate of a stone matched to a similar untreated stone. The impacts of some treatments may lessen or vary over time, and some treated stones might need extraordinary care, so you should examine if a gemstone has been treated.

Here are some basic treatments and their impacts:

  • Bleaching changes and whitens some gemstones, including jade and pearls.
  • The diffusion method combines color with the covering of colorless gemstones. The center of the stone outlasts colorless.
  • Dyeing attaches color and promotes color regularity in some gemstones and pearls.
  • The fracture layer covers the cracks in the gems in a colorless plastic or glass injection to improve the look and stability of the stones.
  • Heating can brighten, darken or change the color of certain gems, or improve the clarity of a stone.
  • The impregnation of a few precious stones with colorless oils, wax or resins conceals a variety of imperfections to enhance the clarity and appearance of the stones.
  • Irradiation can combine color with colored diamonds, particular other gemstones, and pearls.

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